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Period: July 15, 2011 to August 1, 2011
Comment & Opinion or Companies, Organizations or Consumers or Controversies & Disputes or Deals, M&A, JVs, Licensing or Earnings Release or Finance, Economics, Tax or Innovation & New Ideas or Legal, Legislation, Regulation, Policy or Market News or Marketing & Advertising or Other or People & Personalities or Press Release or Products & Brands or Research, Studies, Advice or Supply Chain or Trends
Products & Brands  

U.S. Lawmakers Call On FDA To Ban Genetically Engineered Salmon

A bipartisan group of legislators from the U.S. House and Senate has called on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to not approve the genetically engineered (GE) salmon developed by AquaBounty. The U.S. House approved an amendment that seeks to keep the FDA from approving the GE salmon. Lawmakers, salmon industry leaders, and consumer groups oppose the GE salmon, which they claim can destroy the "genetic adaptations" of wild salmon populations. AquaBounty, however, claims that its GE salmon poses no health risks to humans and that GE salmons will be kept away from natural salmon populations.

"Lawmakers Tell FDA to Back Off on GE Salmon", Food Safety News, July 18, 2011

Probiotics Sales Worldwide Reached $21.6B In 2010, Will Reach $31.1B In 2015

The global probiotics market reached $21.6 billion in sales in 2010 and is forecast to expand to $31.1 billion by 2015, with a compound annual growth rate of 7.6%, according to the report "The Probiotics Market: Ingredients, Supplements, Foods," by MarketResearch.com. Research shows that probiotic foods accounted for 90.1% of total probiotic sales with $19.6 billion, which is expected to reach $28.1 billion in 2015. Probiotics supplements accounted for 6.4% of total sales or $1.3 billion, and are forecast to reach $2.07 billion in 2015.

"Probiotics Market to Reach $31 Billion by 2015", Marketwire, July 12, 2011

All Aboard the Organic Bandwagon

Convenience Store Decisions, July 05, 2011

Research, Studies, Advice  

Fructose, High Fructose Corn Syrup Consumption Increases Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease

A study that examined the metabolic impact of consuming fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and glucose found that consumption of fructose and HFCS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The study was launched to find out whether the U.S. recommendation that the upper limit of added sugar consumption should be 25 percent is supported by scientific evidence. Forty-eight adults were tested. Within two weeks, study participants consuming fructose or high fructose corn syrup, but not glucose, had higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and a protein that leads to vascular plaques. The researchers said their findings suggest that the upper limit of 25 percent of daily calories consumed as added sugar recommended in the 2010 U.S. Dietary Guidelines “may need to be re-evaluated."

"Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, July 31, 2011

Antibiotic Works Better Than Cranberry Capsules At Preventing UTI Recurrences

The standard antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections (UTI) did a better job of preventing recurrences of the condition in premenopausal women than cranberry capsules, Dutch researchers have found. They warned, however, that low-dose antibiotics can contribute to antibiotic resistance over time. For the study, 221 women with symptoms of UTI took either 480 mg of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) daily or 500 mg cranberry capsules twice daily. At 12 months, the average number of clinical recurrences OF UTI was 1.8 in the TMP-SMX group and 4.0 in the cranberry capsules group. However, antibiotic resistance rates tripled in the pathogens found in the TMP-SMX patients.

"Cranberries vs Antibiotics to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections: A Randomized Double-blind Noninferiority Trial in Premenopausal Women", Archives of Internal Medicine, July 25, 2011

Calorie Counts On Restaurant Menus Are Found To Be Inaccurate

Calories counts listed on restaurant menus and Web sites are accurate on average, according to a new U.S. study, but in a random sampling nearly one in five individual menu items that were tested differed from lab tests by more than 100 calories. Researchers at Tufts University compared laboratory measurements of calories in 269 food items with the restaurants' stated calories. Food samples were randomly selected from national fast-food and sit-down chain restaurants in three U.S. cities. They found that lower calorie foods on restaurant menus generally tended to contain more calories than listed. A menu item in a sit-down restaurant that was listed as about 300 calories, and perhaps suitable for people on a restricted-calorie diet, could contain as many as 90 calories more than listed.

"Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Restaurant Foods", JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, July 19, 2011

Milk And Soy Protein Supplements Associated With Reductions In Blood Pressure

A U.S. clinical study involving 352 adults at risk for high blood pressure, or with mild hypertension, has found that a daily supplement of milk or soy protein had a more significant impact on systolic blood pressure than refined carbohydrate dietary supplements. According to the researchers, their study is the first to show that milk protein lowers blood pressure for people with pre-hypertension and stage-1 high blood pressure. When compared to taking a refined carbohydrate supplement: those who took the milk protein supplement had a 2.3 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) lower systolic blood pressure; and those who took the soy protein supplement had a 2.0 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure. No decreases in diastolic pressure were found in the study.

"Effect of Dietary Protein Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Randomized, Controlled Trial", Circulation, July 19, 2011

Adolescent Consumption Of Dairy Foods Reduces Risk Of Adult Onset Diabetes

A large, long-term study of the impact of eating dairy food from adolescence through adulthood has found a significant association between higher consumption and lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The study by U.S. and Singapore scientists analyzed data collected from food-frequency questionnaires that asked about high school diet patterns. The questionnaires were submitted by more than 37,000 women from 1998 to 2005. Researchers found that women who consumed the most dairy foods during adolescence had a 38 percent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes as adults. The researchers acknowledged, however, that “some of the benefit of dairy product intake during high school may be due to the persistence of the consumption pattern during adulthood.”

"Adolescent dairy product consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, July 13, 2011

Increasing Dairy Intake Lowers Oxidative And Inflammatory Stress In Metabolic Syndrome

A study found that an increase in dairy intake eases oxidative and inflammatory stress in metabolic syndrome. Researchers studied 40 overweight and obese adults with metabolic syndrome to find out the early and sustained effects of adequate dairy (AD) and low dairy (LD) diets. Assessment of oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers revealed that AD reduced malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL and suppressed inflammatory markers, including tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-6. LD had no effect on oxidative and inflammatory markers.

"Dairy attentuates oxidative and inflammatory stress in metabolic syndrome", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, July 12, 2011

Omega-3 Intake Reduces Stiffness In Arteries – Study

An analysis of data collected in ten clinical trials has found that omega-3 fatty acid intake was associated with improvement in two measures of the stiffness of arteries, a finding that “may account for some of its purported cardioprotective effects.” The study, conducted by Australian researchers, analyzed the impact of omega-3s on pulse wave velocity and arterial compliance and found that “supplementation with omega-3 offers a scientifically supported means of reducing arterial stiffness.” Several recent studies have verified the benefits of daily doses of omega-3s for cardiovascular health, including a reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death.

"Do long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduce arterial stiffness? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials", British Journal of Nutrition, July 06, 2011

Probiotics Seem To Influence Both Intestinal And Psychological Health

Probiotic intestinal microbiota that deliver certain neuroactive compounds to the intestines seem to have an impact on both gastrointestinal and psychological health, according to U.S. researchers who proposed the creation of a new field of research to be called microbial endocrinology. Texas Tech University researcher Mark Lyte said that when probiotics such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are ingested they become part of an “interactive environment encompassing, microbiological, immunological, and neurophysiological components.” Neurochemicals generated by the bacteria  in the gut circulate through the bloodstream and seem to exert effects outside the intestines, including changes in behavior.

"Probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive compounds: Microbial endocrinology in the design and use of probiotics", Bioessays, July 06, 2011

Scientist Sees Significant Reduction In Global Mortality Rates If Vitamin D Intake Doubled

Global mortality rates could be cost-effectively reduced by as much as 17.3 percent by increasing serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, a U.S. study has found. Researcher William B. Grant evaluated the possible impact on mortality rates in six regions of the world if vitamin D intake was doubled. He found that life expectancy would increase an average of about two years. The mortality rate for African females would drop by 7.6 percent, and for European females by 17.3 percent. Doubling vitamin D intake would be cost-effective, according to Grant, because vitamin D supplementation is cheap and supplementation and moderate UVB irradiance have few adverse side effects.

"An estimate of the global reduction in mortality rates through doubling vitamin D levels", European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, July 06, 2011

In-Shell Pistachio Snacking Slows Consumption, Cuts Calorie Intake

Snacking on in-shell pistachios helps curb consumption and decrease calorie intake, making it a healthful way to lose weight, according to two U.S. studies. In one study, participants who ate in-shell pistachios consumed 41 percent fewer calories compared to those who consumed shelled pistachios. In the second study, pistachio nut shells were found to provide important “visual cues” about eating that translate into lower caloric intake. The studies suggest that in-shell pistachios, which are one of the lowest calorie nuts, are a practical, everyday snack for weight management. “In-shell pistachios are the original ‘slow food,’ researchers said. “Choosing in-shell pistachios instead of shelled nuts is a simple way to decrease calorie consumption without restriction.”

"In-Shell Pistachios: The Original “Slow Food”?", Press Release, PistachioHealth.com, July 01, 2011

Analysis Of Clinical Trials Finds That Green Tea Lowers “Bad” Cholesterol Somewhat

A meta-analysis of 14 clinical trials in which participants either drank green tea or consumed green tea extracts from three weeks to three months found that green tea was associated with a lowering of HDL or “bad” cholesterol, but not with a rise in HDL cholesterol. Green reduced total cholesterol an average of 7.2 mg/dL compared to the placebo. Meanwhile, LDL dropped by a a mean of 2.2 mg/dL, about two percent. The researchers suggested the possibility that these reductions could be due to the presence of catechins in green tea, which lower absorption of cholesterol in the intestines.

"Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, June 29, 2011

Scientists Shed Light On Critical Role Played By Vitamin C In Central Nervous System

A multinational team of scientists has discovered that the nerve cells in the retina – and perhaps other cells of the central nervous system and brain – depend heavily on vitamin C to function properly. Researchers said special receptors in the brain, called GABA-type receptors, act as an inhibitory "brake" on excitatory neurons in the brain. These receptors in the retinal cells stop functioning properly when vitamin C is removed. It's likely that GABA receptors elsewhere in the brain also require vitamin C to function properly, researchers said. Because vitamin C is a major natural antioxidant, it may preserve the receptors and cells from premature breakdown. The researchers said the findings could have implications for other diseases, like glaucoma and epilepsy, which are caused by the dysfunction of nerve cells in the retina and brain.

"Allosteric Modulation of Retinal GABA Receptors by Ascorbic Acid", The Journal of Neuroscience, June 29, 2011

Evidence Supports Role Of Almonds In Heart-Healthy Diet

U.S. researchers who analyzed the results of scientific studies on the cardioprotective effects of almonds have found evidence that the unsaturated fatty acids and dietary fiber contained in the nuts help maintain healthy cholesterol levels. In addition, almonds contain nutrients that play a mechanistic role in promoting heart health. Other heart-healthy ingredients in almonds include vitamin E, protein, magnesium, manganese, copper and calcium. “The message that almonds, in and of themselves, are a heart-healthy snack should be emphasized to consumers,” the researchers said. Between 91and 94 percent of the fatty acids in almonds are unsaturated, which may account for their ability to help maintain healthy cholesterol levels.

"Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions", Nutrition Reviews, April 01, 2011

Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, July 06, 2011

Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition , July 06, 2011

Tea and Coffee Consumption and MRSA Nasal Carriage

Annals of Family Medicine, July 01, 2011

Allosteric Modulation of Retinal GABA Receptors by Ascorbic Acid

The Journal of Neuroscience , June 29, 2011

Plasma omega-3 fatty acids and incident diabetes in older adults

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, May 18, 2011

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