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Period: October 15, 2011 to November 1, 2011
Comment & Opinion or Companies, Organizations or Consumers or Controversies & Disputes or Deals, M&A, JVs, Licensing or Earnings Release or Finance, Economics, Tax or Innovation & New Ideas or Legal, Legislation, Regulation, Policy or Market News or Marketing & Advertising or Other or People & Personalities or Press Release or Products & Brands or Research, Studies, Advice or Supply Chain or Trends
Research, Studies, Advice  

Extract Of Cranberry Flavonoids Not As Effective At Fighting Infections As The Juice

Researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute studying whether a cranberry extract might offer more health benefits than the juice have found that the juice is better at preventing biofilm formation, a precursor of urinary tract infections (UTI). The study tested the group of flavonoids in cranberries known as proanthocyanidins or PACs, the ingredient scientists have assumed gives the juice its infection-fighting properties and therefore could be candidate for creation of an extract deliverable in pill form. The researchers tested the extract and the juice on E. coli bacteria, the primary cause of UTI, finding that the PACs were no “silver bullet,” showing only limited ability to reduce biofilm formation, and only after extended exposure to the E. coli.

"Impact of Cranberry Juice and Proanthocyanidins on the Ability of Escherichia coli to Form Biofilms", Food Science and Biotechnology, October 31, 2011

Girls’ Self-Image More Affected By Magazines, TV Shows That Focus On Body Image

Adolescents, especially girls, who read magazines and watch TV shows that focus on body image are more likely to have a poor self-image, according to a Spanish study of 1,165 high school students. The researchers said the relationship between exposure to these media and body dissatisfaction is not direct, but is real. Psychological variables – eating disorders, self-esteem, internalization of a “thin-body ideal” – can moderate the relationship. Researchers found that exposure to media content such as diet, beauty, health or music videos had a bigger negative impact on girls than on boys. The girls in the study had a lower BMI than the boys, but displayed greater body dissatisfaction: 16.5 percent in women as opposed to 5.4 percent in men.

"The Association Between Exposure to Mass Media and Body Dissatisfaction Among Spanish Adolescents", Women's Health Issues, October 28, 2011

Regaining Weight Lost On A Diet Seems To Be Hormonal Problem

Obese people who restrict their diet and lose weight are likely to regain that weight because of hormonal changes, not because of a return to a poor diet. Fifty overweight or obese adults with a BMI of between 27 and 40 participated in a 10-week low-calorie weight loss program. Researchers measured appetite-regulating hormones at the beginning of the study, at the end, and a year later. Participants lost an average of 13 kgs, but the hormone levels changed in a way associated with an increase in hunger. After a year, participants had regained an average of five kgs. “The relapse has a strong physiological basis and is not simply the result of the voluntary resumption of old habits," researchers concluded.

"Long-Term Persistence of Hormonal Adaptations to Weight Loss", New England Journal of Medicine, October 28, 2011

Children Who Eat Less Fat, More Fiber, Reduce Their Risk Of Chronic Disease In Adulthood

Children and adolescents whose diet is lower in total fat and saturated fat and higher in dietary fiber have a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease later in life, a U.S. study has found. Researchers evaluated 230 women in their mid- to-late-twenties who had participated nine years earlier in a dietary intervention study. Participants in that study ate a diet that limited fat intake to 28 percent of calories and included fruit, vegetables and whole grains. In the follow-up nine years later, researchers found that the women had significantly lower fasting plasma glucose levels and lower systolic blood pressure, risk factors for diabetes and heart disease.

"Adolescent Diet and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Women: Results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) Follow-Up Study", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, October 27, 2011

New Test Can Rapidly Pinpoint Sources Of Food Contamination

U.S. scientists have developed a technology that allows government agencies and food companies to pinpoint the exact nature and origin of food-borne bacteria with unprecedented accuracy. In the standard method of tracing food-borne illness, the DNA of bacteria samples is broken into smaller pieces and the banding patterns are analyzed. The method is flawed because different strains of bacteria have common DNA fingerprints that are genetically similar. The new technology – dubbed the single nucleotide polymorphism test – involves sequencing the genome of the bacteria. The researchers are able to rapidly discriminate between outbreak-related cases and non-outbreak related cases, and can isolate samples connected to contamination.

"A whole genome SNP based approach to trace and identify outbreaks linked to a common Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Montevideo Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis type", Applied and Environmental Microbiology, October 25, 2011

Obesity Reduces Effectiveness Of Flu Shots

Overweight and obese people are more likely that healthy weight people to experience flu illness after receiving a flu shot, new U.S. research has found. Scientists had earlier found that obesity impairs the ability of the human immune system to fight the influenza virus. This study found that obesity actually reduces the effectiveness of the annual flu shot: influenza vaccine antibody levels declined much faster in obese people compared to healthy weight individuals. They also found that responses of white blood cells that play a key role in the body's immune system were defective in heavier people. Approximately half of obese participants in the study had a four-fold drop in antibody levels 12 months after the shot, compared to only a quarter of healthy weight participants.

"Obesity is associated with impaired immune response to influenza vaccination in humans", International Journal of Obesity, October 25, 2011

Low-Fat Diet Plus Fish Oil Supplements Slows Proliferation Of Prostate Cancer Cells

UCLA researchers found in a six-week clinical study that men with prostate cancer who ate a low-fat diet supplemented with fish oil experienced slower cancer cell growth. The growth rates compared favorably to proliferation rates experienced by men on a high-fat Western-style diet. The findings are important because the slower proliferation of the cancer cells lowers the chances that the cancer will spread beyond the prostate. In addition, the men on the low-fat, fish oil-supplement diet also showed changes in the composition of cell membranes in both healthy cells and cancer cells in the prostates. The scientists found that the membranes had higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil, and lower levels of omega-6 fatty acids from corn oil.

"Phase II Prospective Randomized Trial of a Low-Fat Diet with Fish Oil Supplementation in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy ", Cancer Prevention Research, October 25, 2011

Drinking Coffee Reduces Risk Of Basal Cell Carcinoma

Data drawn from questionnaires provided by nurses and other health professionals show an inverse association between drinking caffeinated coffee and the risk of basal cell carcinoma, according to a study presented at a recent medical conference. Though the study looked at the connection between caffeine and both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a decreased risk was found only with BCC. Nearly 73,000 participants were followed from 1984 to 2008 in the study. Researchers found that women who drank more than three cups of coffee a day reduced the risk of BCC by one fifth. But men who drank more than three cups a day had only a nine percent risk reduction, compared with people who drank less than one cup a month.

"Coffee Consumption Associated With Decreased Risk for Basal Cell Carcinoma", Press release, American Association for Cancer Research, October 24, 2011

Obesity Among Young Adults Is Linked To Greater Risk Of Developing Lymphoma

Though the causes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are obscure, researchers have found an association between body weight and diet in young adulthood with NHL, an often fatal cancer of the white blood cells. The yet-unpublished study analyzed dietary and other questionnaire data from 47,541 men who were followed for 22 years, and 91,227 women followed for 28 years. Researchers found that obesity in young adulthood was associated with risk for NHL later in life. Men with a BMI of 30 or higher in their early twenties had a 64 percent higher risk for NHL compared to men who were lean. Obese women had a 19 percent higher risk; women who ate at least four servings of vegetables a day had a 16 percent lower risk of  developing NHL.

"Body Weight, Diet May Be Risk Factors for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma", Press release, presentation, AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, October 24, 2011

Cardiologist Recommends Seven Lifestyle Rules For A Longer, Healthier Life

By following seven simple lifestyle rules, people could significantly increase their chances of living to the age of 90 or even 100 without heart disease, stroke or chronic illnesses such as cancer. According to U.S. cardiologist Dr. Clyde Yancy, following the seven steps can “compress life-threatening disease into the final stages of life” while maintaining the quality of life. The seven lifestyle rules include: being more active, controlling cholesterol levels, eating a healthy diet, controlling blood pressure, achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, managing diabetes and staying tobacco free. Dr. Yancy said governments could promote these healthy lifestyle rules through changes in sodium policies, more tobacco control initiatives, increased green space, and health education.

"Simple Lifestyle Changes Can Add a Decade or More Healthy Years to the Average Lifespan", Press release, presentation at the Canadian Cardiovascular Congress, October 24, 2011

Carbonated Beverages Linked To Aggressive, Violent Behavior Among Teens In Boston Study

A U.S. study has found that teenagers who consume more than 60 ounces of non-diet carbonated soft drinks a week are much more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior, such as toting a weapon and acting violently against peers and siblings. Researchers surveyed 1,878 teens in Boston public schools about their soft drink consumption in the prior week, then divided them into low-consumption and high-consumption (five or more cans a week) groups. About 30 percent were classified as high-consumption. The teens were then asked about violent behavior towards peers or siblings, whether they carried a knife or gun, etc. Teens who were heavy consumers of non-diet fizzy soft drinks were nine to 15 percent more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior – the same magnitude as the impact of alcohol or tobacco.

"The 'Twinkie Defense': the relationship between carbonated non-diet soft drinks and violence perpetration among Boston high school students", Injury Prevention, October 24, 2011

Peanut Allergy Turned Off by Tricking Immune System

North Western University Feinberg School of Medicine, October 11, 2011

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