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Subject:
DIET NEWS
Period: May 1, 2012 to May 15, 2012
Geographies:
Worldwide
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Contents
 
Research, Studies, Advice  

Reducing BMI By Five Points Cuts The Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Though it’s not an easy task, reducing the body mass index (BMI) by five points can significantly cut the risk of type 2 diabetes, according to Swedish/Finnish research. Even severely obese diabetics who lower their BMI have a chance of curing themselves of the disease. Researchers examined data on 2,010 patients who had received bariatric surgery and 2,037 obese patients who received non-surgical interventions. Data were analyzed at two years and then at 10 years. Lower rates of diabetes were found among obese patients who had lost five BMI units by any means. The rate of patients cured of diabetes after losing five BMI units was independent of the starting BMI at all BMI levels measured. This trend was also observed 10 years after surgery.

"Losing Weight When Obese Can Prevent or Cure Diabetes, Whatever the Initial BMI, Study Suggests", News release, presentation at the International Congress of Endocrinology/European Congress of Endocrinology, May 06, 2012

More Evidence Of Cardiovascular Benefits Of Oily Fish

Eating oily fish at least twice a week offers substantial benefits for the cardiovascular system, according to research studies presented at a recent European medical meeting. Oily fish – salmon, mackerel, herring, trout and sardines –  are rich in omega-3 fatty acids and other important nutrients. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to be anti-inflammatory (reducing the risk of atherosclerosis) and anti-arrhythmic, reducing the risk of heart attack. Researchers reported that fish oil supplements – especially pharmaceutical grade formulas – can also provide cardiovascular benefits, especially for people who do not like eating fish. 

"A fish a day keeps the doctor away?", News release, presentation at the EuroPRevent 2012 meeting, May 03, 2012

Fructose Found To Be The Culprit When Obese People Develop Fatty Liver Disease

U.S. researchers have found out why consuming high levels of fructose – the sugar found most often in soft drinks and fruit juices – often leads to dangerous nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese people. Consuming too much fructose on a regular basis depletes the store of ATP, a molecule that provides liver and other body cells with energy for important cellular processes, including metabolism. When liver cells are unable to generate cellular energy because of ATP depletion, the risk for inflammation and scarring in the liver increases.

"Higher dietary fructose is associated with impaired hepatic ATP homeostasis in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes", Hepatology, May 02, 2012

Increased Omega-3 Consumption Associated With Lower Risk Of Alzheimer’s

A Columbia University study has found that the greater the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids from a variety of foods the lower the levels of beta-amyloid – a protein related to Alzheimer’s disease – in the blood. Researchers obtained diet information for an average of 1.2 years from 1,219 people over age 65 who were free of dementia. Their blood was then tested for the beta-amyloid. Researchers were especially interested in 10 nutrients: saturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, vitamin E, vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin B12, folate and vitamin D. Eating a gram of omega-3 a day (about half a salmon fillet a week) more than the average omega-3 consumed by people in the study was associated with 20 to 30 percent lower blood beta-amyloid levels.

"Nutrient intake and plasma β-amyloid", Neurology, May 02, 2012

Youths Familiar With TV Fast-Food Ads Are More Likely To Be Obese

Teenagers and young adults who are aware of and receptive to fast-food ads on television are at greater risk of obesity, according to a U.S. study. The researchers polled more than 3,000 youths ages 15 to 23 years about their height and weight, exercise, and dietary habits, including frequency of eating at fast-food restaurants. They were also asked if they were familiar with 20 images taken from fast-food restaurant ads. About 18 percent were found to be overweight, and 15 percent were obese. But the percentage of youths who were obese was significantly higher among those who recognized more fast-food ads than those who recognized few ads (17 percent vs. 8.3 percent).

"Familiarity With Television Fast Food Ads Linked to Obesity", News release, presentation at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting, April 29, 2012

Overweight Girls Who Are Happy With How They Look Engage In Fewer Risky Dieting Behaviors

Overweight adolescent girls who say they are happy with their size and shape not only have higher levels of self-esteem, they are less likely to engage in negative behaviors sometimes associated with being overweight, a University of California study finds. For the study, 103 overweight adolescents were surveyed for three years. They were assessed for various factors associated with body satisfaction, including self-esteem, anxiety and depression symptoms. Girls who were highly satisfied with their bodies were less likely to engage in risky weight control behaviors, like fasting, skipping meals or vomiting.

"Relationships Between Body Satisfaction and Psychological Functioning and Weight-Related Cognitions and Behaviors in Overweight Adolescents", Journal of Adolescent Health, April 28, 2012

Watercress Protects Body From Exercise-Induced Muscle Stress, DNA Damage

A study sponsored by a European grower of watercress has found that the leafy green effectively reduced the stress endured by muscles during a strenuous workout. Even study participants who ate watercress two hours after high-intensity exercise experienced the same reduction in muscle stress. For the study, ten healthy young men ate 85 grams of watercress – a small bag – each day for eight weeks, then exercised on a treadmill. A similar eight week study without watercress consumption served as a control. The researchers found that eating small amounts of watercress each day boosted the levels of antioxidant vitamins that help protect bodies from stress-induced DNA damage.

"Acute and chronic watercress supplementation attenuates exercise-induced peripheral mononuclear cell DNA damage and lipid peroxidation", British Journal of Nutrition, April 25, 2012

Fish Oil, Perhaps Combined With Aspirin, May Reduce Gum Inflammation

A review of eight studies on the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on gum inflammation has found that a combination of fish oil and aspirin seemed to have a significant impact, at least in two of the studies. The Australian researchers said the evidence that fish oil can be effective in reducing periodontal symptoms is growing, but is not conclusive. More well-designed studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of fish oil alone, and combined with aspirin, in combating periodontitis.

"Fish Oil Could Be Therapy for Periodontal Disease", News release, presentation at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting, April 24, 2012

Omega-3s Do Not Improve The Heart’s Diastolic Function

U.S. researchers studying the impact of omega-3 supplementation on cardiovascular health have ruled out the possibility that fish oil improves diastolic function: the ability of the heart to relax and efficiently refill with blood at each beat. Many studies over the years have established that omega-3 fatty acids help prevent cardiovascular disease and adverse cardiac events, such as heart attack and stroke. But no one has been able to explain why. In this study, eleven healthy adults (average age 66 years) took daily omega-3 supplements containing 1.9 grams EPA and 1.5 grams DHA. Over 12 weeks, however, there were no detectable improvements in diastolic function, suggesting that fish oil didn't change this important parameter of cardiac health.

"Three-Month Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Does Not Improve Cardiac Diastolic Function in Healthy Older Adults", News release, presentation at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting, April 24, 2012

The Right Forms Of Vitamin E Do Prevent Cancer, Review Of Research Finds

Vitamin E in the forms known as gamma-tocopherols and delta-tocopherols – found abundantly in vegetable oils – are beneficial in preventing cancers, a U.S. review of research finds. The researchers were careful to point out, however, that the vitamin E form known as alpha-tocopherol, commonly found in supplements, offers no such benefit. The beneficial forms of vitamin E are found in soybean, canola and corn oils, as well as nuts, and have been shown to prevent colon, breast and prostate cancers in animal models.

"Does Vitamin E Prevent or Promote Cancer?", Cancer Prevention Research, April 23, 2012

All Things Considered, Canned Foods Are The Cheapest Source Of Nutrients

A U.S. study that compared the cost of obtaining key nutrients from various sources found that canned foods are almost always more affordable and convenient. The “market-basket” study took into account not only nutrients, but also price, waste and preparation time of canned, fresh, frozen and dried varieties of some common foods. Canned foods almost always were the cheaper source. For example, when preparation time of pinto beans is taken into account, the canned variety costs $1 less per serving than dried beans, because of the time it takes to soak and cook the beans before serving.

"Obtaining Key Nutrients from Canned Foods Can Save Consumers Money Compared to Fresh, Frozen, Dried Varieties", News release, presentation at Experimental Biology 2012,, April 22, 2012

Eating Soy Protein Helps Eases Stress On Fatty Livers

Obesity is a key factor in fatty liver disease, which affects a third of Americans and can lead to liver failure. In obese patients, the transport of fat to adipose (fatty) tissue can slow down to the point that the liver becomes a dumping ground for excess fat. Now researchers at the University of Illinois have found that soy protein cuts fat accumulation in the liver of obese patients by restoring the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, a crucial player in fat metabolism. The researchers suggested that eating soy protein, from sources such as tofu and yogurt, alleviates some of the stress on fatty livers.

"Soy Protein Alleviates Symptoms of Fatty Liver Disease, Study Suggests", News release, presentation at the annual meeting of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, April 22, 2012

Researchers Find That Consuming Omega-3s Repairs Smoke-Induced Arterial Injury

A study by Greek researchers reports that four weeks of oral intake of omega-3 fatty acids – 2,000 mg a day – improves arterial stiffness in smokers and improves the acute smoke-induced inelasticity of the cardiovascular system. The researchers said the cardio-protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids are grounded in anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic mechanisms. They recommended that smokers who have quit using tobacco products should eat oily fish rich in omega-3s at least twice a week to help repair their cardiovascular system.

"Omega 3 Fatty Acids May Help to Reduce the Physical Harm Caused by Smoking", News release, presentation at the World Congress of Cardiology, April 20, 2012

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