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Period: December 15, 2013 to January 1, 2014
Comment & Opinion or Companies, Organizations or Consumers or Controversies & Disputes or Deals, M&A, JVs, Licensing or Earnings Release or Finance, Economics, Tax or Innovation & New Ideas or Legal, Legislation, Regulation, Policy or Market News or Marketing & Advertising or Other or People & Personalities or Press Release or Products & Brands or Research, Studies, Advice or Supply Chain or Trends

African-American Women Need To Exercise More, Eat Less Than Caucasians To Lose Weight

Researchers who looked for metabolic reasons why African-American women don’t lose as much weight as white women when they diet or exercise have found that the African-American women had lower resting metabolic rates and generally expended less energy during activity. That means that to lose weight they need to eat fewer – and burn more – calories than Caucasian women. The U.S. study was conducted among 39 severely obese African-American and 66 Caucasian women who participated in a six-month weight loss program. The African-American women lost about seven pounds fewer than the Caucasian women, even though their starting body mass index, or BMI, measures were comparable and they consumed the same number of calories and exercised the same way.

"African American women exhibit similar adherence to intervention but lose less weight due to lower energy requirements", International Journal of Obesity, December 19, 2013

Tomato-Rich Diet Reduces Risk Of Breast Cancer In Post-Menopausal Women

U.S. researchers who conducted a longitudinal cross-over study examining the effects of diet on 70 postmenopausal women found that a tomato-rich diet may help protect against breast cancer. A diet rich in tomatoes had a larger impact on the levels of hormones that regulate fat and sugar metabolism in women who maintained a healthy weight, the researchers said. Breast cancer risk rises in postmenopausal women as their body mass index climbs. With the tomato-rich diet, participants' levels of the hormone adiponectin climbed nine percent.

"Effects of Tomato and Soy on Serum Adipokine Concentrations in Postmenopausal Women at Increased Breast Cancer Risk", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, December 18, 2013

Skip The Supplements, Stick To Nutrient-Rich Foods, Studies Advise

Dietary supplements may help some people with special nutrient needs, but generally eating a variety of nutrient-rich foods is the best way to get healthy nutrients needed to reduce the risk of chronic disease, U.S. studies have found. The studies, along with an accompanying editorial, say there really is not clear benefit for most healthy people to take vitamin supplements. Choosing foods that provide the most nutrients per calorie “can build a healthier life and start down a path of health and wellness”. Recommendations include a healthy breakfast, whole grains, fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables, omega 3-rich seafood and fiber- and folate-rich beans.

"Enough Is Enough: Stop Wasting Money on Vitamin and Mineral Supplements", Annals of Internal Medicine, December 17, 2013

Daily Apple – Or Statin – Equally Likely To Keep The Doctor Away

Eating just one apple a day would prevent or delay around 8,500 vascular deaths such as heart attacks and strokes every year among adults over age 50 in the U.K., a British study has found. The same result could also be achieved, perhaps with more side effects and complications like muscular myopathy, by taking statins each day. The researchers used mathematical models to analyze the effect of eating an apple a day on common causes of “vascular mortality”. Subjects in the study did not already take statins. A daily statin given to 17.6 million more adults would reduce vascular deaths by 9,400 a year, while a daily apple given to 22 million Britons over 50 years would prevent 8,500 vascular deaths.

"A statin a day keeps the doctor away: comparative proverb assessment modeling study", BMJ, December 17, 2013

Pediatricians Caution Against Consumption Of Raw Milk By Babies, Pregnant Women

Expectant mothers, babies and young children should not consume unpasteurized (raw) milk or milk products – which can be legally purchased in 30 U.S. states – and should only consume pasteurized products, the American Academy of Pediatrics advises. Raw milk and milk products are a continuing source of bacterial infections that are especially dangerous to pregnant women, fetuses, the elderly, young children and people with compromised immune systems, the organization says. Raw milk and raw-milk products, such as soft cheeses, have become increasingly popular, because of unfounded claims of health benefits. From 1998 through 2009, there were 93 recorded outbreaks of disease resulting from consumption of raw milk or raw-milk products, causing 1,837 illnesses, 195 hospitalizations and two deaths.

"Consumption of Raw or Unpasteurized Milk and Milk Products by Pregnant Women and Children", Pediatrics, December 16, 2013

A Healthy Diet Does Cost More, But Is Offset By Much Lower Healthcare Costs

Harvard scientists have figured out that it really is more expensive to eat healthy, but not that much more – only $1.50 a day, or $550 a year. In a meta-analysis of 27 studies across 10 affluent countries that compared the costs of eating healthy versus less-healthy meals, the researchers found that healthier diet patterns – for example, diets rich in fruits, vegetables, fish, and nuts – cost significantly more than unhealthy diets (i.e., those rich in processed foods, meats, and refined grains). The researchers said the price difference is very small in comparison to the economic costs of diet-related chronic diseases, “which would be dramatically reduced by healthy diets”.

"Do Healthier Foods and Diet Patterns Cost More Than Less Healthy Options? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", BMJ Open, December 15, 2013

Research, Studies, Advice  

Body’s Circadian Rhythms Upset By High-Fat Diet, Causing Metabolic Problems

The circadian clock – the internal body clock that regulates metabolic functions in the liver – can reprogram itself depending on the nutritional content, especially the fat content, of a person’s diet, U.S. researchers report. The day-night pattern of circadian rhythms affects about 15 percent of human genes, including those involved with metabolic pathways in the liver. A high-fat diet reprograms the liver clock, contributing to ailments such as diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure. The researchers noted, however, that returning to a balanced, low-fat diet normalizes the rhythms. The findings could lead to the discovery of drug targets for controlled diets.

"Reprogramming of the Circadian Clock by Nutritional Challenge", Cell, December 19, 2013

Many Older Germans Taking Far Too Much Vitamin E, Magnesium, Not Enough Vitamin D

German scientists who investigated the prevalence of dietary supplement use among older people in the city of Augsburg found that those who took magnesium and vitamin were overdoing it. The data from men and women aged 65 and older showed that 54 percent of the women and 34 percent of the men take dietary supplements. In both sexes, scientists found, the ingested doses of magnesium and vitamin E frequently exceeded European Food Safety Authority tolerability standards. The doses were too high in 20 percent of the females and 33 percent of the males regularly taking magnesium and in 8 and 14 percent, respectively. Vitamin D, frequently recommended by doctors for this age group for bone health, was taken by relatively few older people.

"The use of dietary supplements among older persons in Southern Germany — Results from the KORA-age study", The Journal Of Nutrition, Health & Aging, December 13, 2013

Dad’s Diet Prior To Offspring’s Conception Is Important To Fetal Health

What a man eats prior to the conception of his child can impact fetal and child development, according to a Canadian study in mice. Researchers compared the offspring of fathers with insufficient folate (vitamin B9) in their diets with the offspring of fathers whose diets contained sufficient levels. Paternal folate deficiency was associated with an increase – as much as 30 percent – in birth defects of various kinds in the offspring, compared to the offspring of mice whose fathers ate sufficient folate. Adequate folate – found in green leafy vegetables, cereals, fruit and meats – in a mother’s diet has long been known to prevent miscarriages and birth defects. 

"Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes", Nature Communications, December 10, 2013

Hypertension Guidelines Can Be Eased, Panel Says

The New York Times, December 18, 2013

Are Nuts a Weight-Loss Aid?

The New York Times, December 17, 2013

Multivitamins Found to Have Little Benefit

Wall Street Journal, December 16, 2013

Humans are becoming more carnivorous

Nature Journal, December 02, 2013

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