Older people with type 2 diabetes can reduce the risk of an eyesight-threatening condition known as diabetic retinopathy by eating a healthy diet and increasing their intake of omega-3 fatty acids, according to a study by Spanish scientists. Omega-3s are found in fatty fish like salmon and in nuts. The study gathered dietary data between 2003 and 2009 from 3,614 type 2 diabetics 55 to 80 years old. They were told to eat at least 500 mg of omega-3s a day, a target that can be achieved by consuming two meals of fatty fish a week. After six years of follow-up, it was found that the 2,611 participants who stuck to the omega-3 recommendation had cut their risk of diabetic retinopathy by 48 percent.
"Dietary Marine ω-3 Fatty Acids and Incident Sight-Threatening Retinopathy in Middle-Aged and Older Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: Prospective Investigation From the PREDIMED Trial. ", JAMA Ophthalmol., September 11, 2016
Brazilian scientists predicted at a scientific meeting that someday the antioxidants known as citrus flavanones will be used to prevent or delay chronic obesity-related diseases. Citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, and limes are particularly rich in these flavanones. Working with mice, the research team fed 50 animals with or without citrus flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol) while feeding them a standard or high-fat diet. They found that a high-fat diet without flavanones significantly increased biomarkers of cell damage. However, mice fed citrus flavanones were healthier with lower oxidative stress, less liver damage, lower blood lipids and lower blood glucose.
"Citrus fruits could help prevent obesity related heart disease, liver disease, diabetes", News release, study presented at an American Chemical Society meeting, September 11, 2016
Obese people showing signs of insulin resistance that portends diabetes improved their condition simply by avoiding the byproducts of dry heat-cooked or heat-processed foods, a U.S. study has found. High levels of “advanced glycation end products” (AGEs) not only cause pre-diabetes by increasing insulin resistance, they lead to brain changes similar to Alzheimer’s disease. For the study, one obese group was allowed to eat foods cooked by high-AGE grilling, frying or baking. The second group was told to avoid those methods in favor of poaching, stewing, or steaming. At the end of the study, the low-AGE group showed significantly improved insulin resistance, slightly decreased body weight, and much lower AGE levels in the body.
"Oral AGE restriction ameliorates insulin resistance in obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.", Diabetologia, September 11, 2016
Six years of health survey data collected from more than 22,000 people shows that celiac disease remains a problem, but not a growing one, contrary to some reports. The proportion of people diagnosed with the disease, characterized by an allergic reaction to the gluten protein found in wheat-based products, has stayed the same. But U.S. researchers noted that the number of non-celiac people following a gluten-free diet has grown. The numbers gleaned from the sample were extrapolated to the general population: about 1.76 million Americans have celiac disease; 2.7 million non-celiacs follow a gluten-free diet. This may be due to public perception that gluten-free may be healthier; that gluten-free products are increasingly available;... More
"Time Trends in the Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Gluten-Free Diet in the US Population: Results From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009-2014.", JAMA Intern Med., September 06, 2016
U.S. researchers have determined that a novel class of gluten-degrading enzymes found in saliva may have the potential to treat celiac disease, a severe allergic reaction to the protein found in wheat-based products. The enzymes were isolated from Rothia bacteria, which are natural colonizers of the oral cavity. The enzymes (subtilisins) belong to the S8 family of peptidases. Food-grade Bacillus species also produce such subtilisins, and these were also able to break down gluten compounds that cause the immune response. The main course of treatment for people with celiac disease is adherence to a strict gluten-free diet.
"Identification of Food-grade Subtilisins as Gluten-degrading Enzymes to Treat Celiac Disease. ", American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, September 06, 2016
A small U.S. study presented at a recent heart disease conference found that people who stuck to the Paleo diet of minimally processed foods for eight weeks showed signs of improvement in heart health. The eight participants in the study – there was no control group – experienced a 35 percent increase in levels of interlukin-10 (IL-10), a signaling molecule secreted by immune cells. Low levels of IL-10 predict increased heart attack risk in people who also have high levels of inflammation. High IL-10 levels may counteract inflammation, providing a protective effect for blood vessels. The increase in IL-10 could suggest a lower risk for cardiovascular disease after following the Paleo diet.
"Could the Paleo Diet Benefit Heart Health? ", Newsmax Health, August 29, 2016